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International Review of Applied Linguistics, 41 123— New York: Guilford, ; Gall, Meredith. Chapter 5, Flexible Methods: Descriptive Research. There are no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher. Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research.

Introduction Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof. Cross-sectional studies provide a clear 'snapshot' of the outcome and the characteristics associated with it, at a specific point in time.

The classic experimental design specifies an experimental group and a control group. Subsequent experimental designs have used more groups and more measurements over longer periods. London: Routledge. The new interventional strategies are carried out, and this cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of [or a valid implementation solution for] the problem is achieved.

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Writing for the Design Mind: Natalia Ilyin: Bloomsbury Visual Arts